The Paleolithic diet, also frequently referred to as the Paleo Diet, Stone Age Diet, or Cavemen Diet, is a nutritional approach that calls for people to eat the way our Paleolithic ancestors did. Proponents of the diet attribute many modern illnesses to the processed, carbohydrate-heavy foods that most of us eat, and encourage us to restrict our diet to the plant foods and animal protein that fed our Stone Age forebears.
Paleolithic diet followers argue that human beings are designed to eat a typical “hunter-gatherer” diet rather than the refined sugar, dairy, and grains that have dominated our diet since the agricultural revolution. A gastroenterologist named Walter L. Voegtlin was one of the first people to propose a Paleolithic diet in his 1975 book The Stone Age Diet: Based on in-depth Studies of Human Ecology and the Diet of Man. The diet gained real notoriety in 1985, when Emory University professors S. Boyd Eaton ad Melvin Konner published a paper in the New England Journal of Medicine that advocated a Paleolithic nutrition plan.